Men and Women

Presentations on the topic MEN AND WOMEN

An international comparison of differences and similarities between men and women

Men and women Swedens perspective






Krakow- the city of suffragettes

The city of Krakow preserves the memory of the emancipation process and its initiators, heroins and beneficiaries particularly discreetly.

The developments achieved by the emancipation movement are not commemorated by monuments or even memorial plaques. Also outstanding women are rarely honoured in that way. The memory about events, moments and people important for emancipation of women are preserved in archives, libraries, address books, family albums and, still limited in number, academic studies. School course books and tourist guides are however not particularly useful in this regard, being means of conveying collective memory.

The following text is an attempt at bringing back places important for krakow emancipation movement and fight for equal rights for women. It spans the period from 1867, accepted as the beginning of the autonomy of Galicia, and 1918, when the Polish independent state was established and Polish female citizens obtained universal suffrage. It is worth noting that the Krakow feminist movement in the initial period, although sympathizing with social-democratic movement and labour circles, was a movement of women originationg from landowning and intellectual circles, and the benefits mostly affected those social classes.

In the Habsburg monarchy, which ruled over Krakow, women did not have political rights, that is, they did not have general suffrage for the State Council, the State Parliament in Lvov as well as for the local authorities. They could not be activists in associations related to politics. Sice 1867 in Galicia there was voting qualification including men (although not all of them) and female owners of big estates and businesses, who could only vote through male representatives. In 1907 general suffrage was introduced for men. Since women did not have the right to be political activists (the ban was repealed in 1913) women founded educational associations. They engaged in various forms of putting pressure on the authorities: they wrote petitions, organized rallies and demonstrations, addressed questions, formed election commitees. They were successful in being granted open suffrage for the Krakow city council in 1912. The right was however limited by age, education and ecoomical status qualification. Only women who were at least 24, lived in Krakow at least for four years, graduated from secondary school, university or teachers‘ college and paid the tax could vote.
Szewska 21 – the editorial office of „Nowe Słowo“ (new word), a social- literary bi-weekly devoted to women. It appeared between 1902 and 1907. The editor was Maria Turzyma. Nearly all significant activists of the Polish feminist movement published in the magazine. It was of socialist outlook, but it was aimed at women from intellectual circles.

Poselska 8 – The Reading Room for Women, one of the most important institutions of the Krakow emancipation movement. It joined educational, and emanciation aims. The Reading room organized lectures, meetings, courses, talks, they took part in political actions and welfare actions.


First Private Secondary School for Women, established in 1896 thanks to Kazimiera Bujwidowa’s efforts. It was the first secondary school on the Polish territory with the curriculum similar to that in schools for males and entitling to apply to university. The school belonged to an association called Towarzystwo Szkoły Gimnazjalnej Żeńskiej . In the school the teachers were, among others, Marcelina Kulikowska, Helena Witkowska, Stefania Sempołowska, Ewelina Wróblewska. At first the school was located at 11 Sw Jana Street, then at 12 Bracka Street. It’s worth mentioning that between 2005-2008 the school held a postgraduate gender course as a part of a faculty at the Jagiellonian University.

Plac Na Groblach 9 – since 1898 there was St Anna Secondary Schoolfor Men but it also, as the only one in Krakow, held national maturity exams for women. The first one to take it was Helena Donhaiser who received her exam certificate on 5th of June 1899. Next year 21 women took the exams. They studied at the First Secondary School for Women but that school was not licensed to hold national exams. That framework prevailed till 1907.

Św. Katarzyny 1 – an orthodox school Bejs Jakow for Jewish girls, established in 1917 by Sara Schenier. In 1925 Schenier also established Teacher Training Courses for future Bejs Jakow teachers.

Kazimera Bujwidowa
She was an activist at an education asoiciation called Towarzystwo Szkół Ludowych, as well as co-founder and a chairperson of the Krakow reading room for women. She founded reading rooms for young people which were free of charge. In 1890s she officially left the Catholic church, which caused ostracism in the conservative Krakow society. Between 1896 and 1906 she chaired an educational association called Towarzystwo Gimnazjalnej Szkoły Żeńskiej. She worked towards founding the first secondary school for girls which was certified to hold national maturity exams which were equal to those held by schools for boys. She initiated an action of women writing applications to be admitted to university, and in 1896 the there were first female students. In 1904 she petitioned the parliament and in 1910 the government for equal rights for women at universities. In 1908 she got engaged in Maria Dulębianka’s election campaign. Maria Dulębianka was the first woman running for the parliament. In 1910 she took part in the congress for women in Paris. In 1912 she was a delegate to the Austrian convention regarding women’s suffrage (the Krakow region was then under Austrian rule). During the First World War she gave up engaging in political activity, one of the reasons being a chronic disease.
Kazimiera Bujwidowa was definitely one of the most important activists of the Polish emancipation movement. There were others too. The unquestioned leader of the movement was Paulina Kuczalska-Reinschmit. She came from Warsaw and was called „Hetman“ and „The Pope of feminism“. Another Krakow activist was Maria Turzyma, the editor of „Nowe Słowo“, a magazine, whose journalists were Kazimiera Bujwidowa, Maria Siedlecka, Maria Dulębianka. We shouldn’t forget about Stefanii Sempołowska, Marcelinie Kulikowskia, Helenie Skłodowska.
Kazimera Bujwidowa’s activity had two aspects: one was focused on emancipation and political rights and the second on education. A woman was always the main reference point for her, which I woild like to present based on two examples of successful solutions in education, whose main initiator was Kazimiera Bujwidowa.

książka: Krakowski Szlak Kobiet


Women and Men In France


Women have been considered to be traditionally a backward sector of the society.In 1930 there were approximately six millions of families 85 % of which were working and rural families. In five millions of these, the women did the chores only and exclusively. The incorporation of the woman to the working class was full of difficulties: on the one hand with a rate of major illiteracy than men, it made difficult the contracting of the women.
On the other hand, the increase of the redundancy in the agriculture, because of the bad crops, was preventing that thousands of women could accede to a working place in the field, where the employers were managing to prohibit expressly the women’s contracting. In spite of his constitutional laws, there weren´t a lot of women who joined of to the world of the politics. The concession of the vote, called suffrage, produced an ideological change on the political paper of the woman. It was increasing the feminine participation in the unions and working parties. The most important Spanish woman of that time was Clara Campoamor.

In Spain, only rich people could vote but in 1890, a liberal government replaced this kind of suffrage for another one: everyone(only men) who were 25 years old or more could vote, they could be rich or poor, their money wasn’t a problem for voting unlike the old suffrage, in which only rich people could vote.
The right to the women’s vote was established in Spain in 1931 during the second Republic and it was applied on 1932. In 1931 the women could be chosen, but they couldn’t vote.

The congress is composed by a minimum of 300 members and a maximum of 400 members, and its actual number is 350 members. Before the approbation the women suffrage in Spain, most of the members of the congress were men, but there were a few women in the congress, like Victoria Kent and Clara Campoamor, known because she developedt he women’s suffrage in Spain

Feminism is the collection of movements and ideologies that defend the social, political and economic rights for women. Thanks to the feminist movements, women have achieved lots of achievements like the women sufrage.

There were some feminist movements in Spain fighting to get the women suffrage: In 1927 Concepción Loring was the first woman talking in a Spanish assembly and the first appearance of the women suffrage in Spain was in 1931. There was an election in which women could participate with a passive suffrage, so women could be candidates.
The 30th of November of 1931 a debate about women suffrage started. Clara Campoamor fought in defence and with her discourses she got a votation. Her proposal won with 161 votes.
The women suffrage in Spain was approved the 9th of December of 1931 and the first time women could vote in Spain was the 19th of November of 1933.

The role of women was attached to maternity and family life. In some areas of Spain 70% of women couldn’t read or write. Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851-1921) was a pioner of feminism, denouncing the inequality between men and women. Spanish women needed authorizarion of their husband or father to carry out economic activities. In 1918 a group of middle class women (teacher, writers and university students) created the National Association of Spanish women. Some of them were María Espinosa, Benita Alas, Victoria Kent and Clara Campoamor. They demanded women’s right to vote and equality of salaries for men and women. Women vote was given in the context of the changes introduced by the Spanish second Republic (1931-1936). Even the radical socialists and feminists Margarita Nelken and Victoria Kent rejected women’s right to vote, because they thought they were not ready.
Clara Campoamor defended the right of women to vote and the elimination of discrimination based on sex.
In 1931 Clara Campoamor and Victoria Kent were the only women among 465 members in the Parliament. Margarita Nelken joined them at the end of that year.
In the 1933 elections, it was the first time women could vote.
She was born in 1888 in Madrid (Spain). Her father, Manuel Martinez Campoamor, worked for a newspaper and her mother earned some extra money tailoring. At the age of 13, Clara was forced to leave school and help her mother because her father died.
She worked in a postoffice in San Sebastián, as a teacher for adults and for the newspaper ”La Tribuna”. When she was 36 she graduated as the first female lawyer at the Spanish Supreme Court.
Clara was one of the women elected into parliament, and thought to defend women’s right. She even confronted Victoria Kent. Due to this, she left her party. In 1936 Campoamor had to leave Spain because her life was in danger under Franco’s regime. She lived in exile in Switzerland where she continued publishing feminist texts. She died in 1972.

In 1936, the military rising and the Civil War ended the evolution. The New National Spain of Franco abolished the right to vote, the civil marriage and women were turned into the role of ”Catholic wife-mother” again.


Women in Germany


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